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Full text of "Poland Russia and Great Britain 1941-1945"

elaborated in agreement with the Polish Government. The Polish Govern-
ment desire to state here that the lawful Polish authorities, which were
abolished by the German occupying power in violation of the stipulations of
the IV Hague Convention of 1907, continued to function underground,
and should form the basis of the administration of the country.
"After the return to Poland of the supreme State authorities and of those
of her nationals who—owing to military events—remain outside of
the frontiers of the country, elections will be held on the basis of a universal,
free, direct, secret and proportional ballot, which offers to all political
parties full freedom of electoral activities and to all citizens the equal and
free right to express their will. The Polish Government will retain their
authority until the convocation of the Seym, elected in accordance with the
aforesaid principles, and the formation in Poland of a new, legitimate
Government.
" 3. The Polish Government are confident that the Government of Great
Britain will not agree to be a party to decisions concerning the Allied Polish
Republic, arrived at without the participation and consent of the Polish
Government.
" The Polish Government confidently trust that, at the Conference of
the Great Allied Powers, the British Government will give expression to
their resolve not to recognise accomplished facts in Poland, in particular
not to recognise a puppet government. The recognition of such a c govern-
ment ' in Poland would be tantamount to the recognition of the abolition
of the independence of Poland, in the defence of which the present war was
begun."
By January and February, 1945, the Red Army had expelled the Ger-
mans from almost the whole of Polish territory. The Russian Army had
come from a country where famine was rife and not only were they unable
to supply the population of the newly-conquered areas, but they sought
to extract some supplies from them. With this change of occupant,
came a new order, a change-over which did not lessen but increased the
number of people who were deprived of their means of existence. The
first item in the Soviet programme for Poland was the annihilation of the
so-called e upper classes/ to be achieved by the destruction of the money
market (the abolition of mortgages, shares and the closing of banks., etc.),
and the confiscation of property, not only that belonging to * Germans and
traitors/ but any land property above a certain minimum, figure. The
influx of the masses of people escaping from Eastern Provinces increased
the general state of destitution and misery.
Under the German rule in Poland, there had been primitive terror and
stupid brutality; the Poles had resisted throughout the occupation, and
the Germans had shot them as individuals and massacred them on a
wholesale scale. The methods of the new occupants were more far-
reaching in their refined ruthlessness. Their final aim was not the
temporary subordination of a country, but the transformation to the
Soviet order of life as a prelude to a total absorption into the ILS.S.R.
To this purpose, the method was to divide the community by splitting
it politically and socially. By working among all classes and extracting
those who were the bone, the sinew and the gristle of the population,
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